What is chloroplast: definition, function, structure, adaptation
What is chloroplast
Chloroplast is a plastid containing chlorophyll, and is used as a place for photosynthesis to take place. Chloroplasts are membrane-bound cell organelles found only in plant cells.
Chloroplasts are also plastids that are green in color which contain a pigment called chlorophyll. Chloroplast Lens-shaped or grain and flattened that can be seen under a microscope with the strongest magnification light. In higher plants, chloroplasts are oval in shape, while at lower levels they tend to be rounded.
The main function of chloroplasts is as a site for photosynthesis. Photosynthesis is a reaction to the formation of ATP and involves the transport of hydrogen and electrons in compounds such as NADH and cytochromes.
This photosynthesis will convert carbon dioxide into sugar, which is a source of chemical energy and food for plants. Photosynthesis uses light as an energy source, CO2, water which will produce oxygen and carbohydrates.
The chloroplast membrane is a double membrane structure that exists in the outer membrane as well as the inner membrane. Each of these membranes is a phospholipid bilayer, and is also about 6 to 8 nm thick. A thick space is present about 10 to 20 nm between the 2 membranes which is often known as the space between membranes.
The stroma is a fluid that is in a double membrane membrane which is often called the stroma. The internal components and some solutes are scattered on the stroma. The stroma is rich in protein, and also contains many enzymes that are needed for important cellular processes. Chloroplast DNA is also present in the stroma along with ribosomes and also other molecules that will be needed for protein synthesis. Starch is synthesized through photosynthesis and is stored in the stroma in the form of a granule.
In addition there are membranes that make up the membrane, the chloroplast will contain a third internal membrane system which is commonly called the thylakoid membrane. The internal thylakoid in a membrane bound compartment will be formed by the thylakoid membrane itself. The internal part of the thylakoids is called the thylakoid lumen, and contains plastocyanin or other molecules needed for the transport of an electron.